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M-1 LINER INFO

 INFANTRY LINERS

Frontal eyelet hole

A true US WWII M-1 helmet liner can be identified through the frontal eyelet hole.  If an M-1 helmet liner has one, there's a good chance it was made during WWII.  The piece pictured on the right is a restored "high pressure" model M-1 helmet liner.  It was the most produced M-1 helmet liner made during World War II. 

Note: US liners produced in the 1950s and some European copies still retained that feature and some modern dealers drill them into the M1958 liners.

 

 


US WWII M-1 Infantry Helmet Liner

 Cotton HBT suspension cloth

The majority of US WWII M-1 helmet liners had a cotton herring bone twill (HBT) cloth suspension.  The HBT cloth was either a single or multiple weave pattern.  This HBT suspension was held tightly within the M-1 helmet liner by rivets and a series of triangular "A" washers.  The three upper suspension bands were joined together with a shoe string.  This way the wearer could adjust the fit.  

Note: A true US WWII M-1 helmet liner would alway have this string tie.  Later M-1 helmet liners made in the 1960s did not.

 

 

 
HBT Cloth Interior

 Back & nape strap 

A distinguishing feature of the US WWII M-1 helmet liner was the back-strap.  The back-strap was a single piece of cloth that had four female-ended snaps within it.  It was riveted to the back of the liner near the base of the wearer's neck (also called the "nape"). 

The back-strap was used in conjunction with the "nape" strap.  The nape strap was another method used to guarantee a snug fit for the M-1 helmet and liner.  The nape strap came in both single and two-piece varities.

Size adjustment

US WWII M-1 helmets and liners were "one size fits all".  The M-1 helmet shells were one standard size.  The M-1 helmet liners were too, but were adjustible.  Through three methods the wearer could adjust the fit of the M-1 helmet liner; through the top string tie, nape strap/back-strap and headband adjustment.  

 Note: The "nape" strap was another item left out of the 1960 era production. Pictured to the right is a two-piece "nape" strap adopted around 1943. 


HBT Cloth Backstrap with Nape Strap

 

Internal garter studs

A major identifier of a WWII US M-1 helmet liner are the internal garter studs.  On each side of the M-1 helmet liner were two small posts attached by an external cap.  These studs were for the fastening of the leather liner chinstrap.  This feature was retained in the US M-1 helmet liner all the way up to the M-1958 and disappeared in the early 1960s.

Note: These garter studs were made  from both steel and brass, depending on the time period of manufacture.

 


Internal Garter Stud for Line Chin Strap

 AIRBORNE LINERS

"A" straps & chincups

The M-1 helmet liner used for airborne troops is easily identified by two inverted "A" straps.  These "A" straps are riveted beneath the HBT suspension and were made from a heavy duty webbing.  The "A" straps were used to fasten a leather or cloth chincup underneath the parachutist's chin.

The leather chincup was the first model.  It had five grommet holes and was formed from a single piece of leather. The leather chincup was often lined with a piece of chamois for comfort.  This style was most often seen with the earlier M-2 paratrooper helmets.  Some chamois pieces were sewn in and others glued. 

The cloth variety of chincup was introduced late in the war for the M-1C paratrooper helmet.   There has been some debate about whether or not this style had four or five grommet holes.

 


M-1C US WWII Paratrooper Helmet Liner

 

Internal para snaps

One way the US Army kept the M-1 helmet shell and liner together while the wearer was jumping from airplanes was to fit all airborne liners with an internal set of snaps.  These were set on the sides of the liner (pictured right) and would fasten to the a corresponding chinstrap tab that was sewn on the M-1 helmet shell.

Note: These snaps were made of either brass or steel, depending on the time period produced

 


Internal Chinstrap Snaps

"Factory 'A' straps"

A debat that has emerged among collectors of US WWII airborne liners concerns whether they were made into airborne liners by the manufactuer or in the field by US Army parachute riggers.  This concerns "war time" US WWII paratrooper liners only.  The distinction between the two can be detected on how (thus at what point in time) the A straps were set within the helmet liner suspension system. 

"Factory 'A' straps" are literally set underneath the existing suspension

"Rigger 'A' straps" are set about one inch below the existing suspension with a different set of rivets. 

Note: Post war modification of airborne liners seems to have adopted both methods.  I have found many Korean War era liners with "rigger" style A straps and also found M1958 airborne liners with "factory" set A straps.  (For a list of the actual companies authorized to modify airborne liners check below)


Factory Set Paratrooper A Straps & Chin Cup

M-1 Helmet Liner Manufacturers



Hood Rubber Company

THE HOOD RUBBER COMPANY

 Manufactured in Watertown, Massachusetts this “ball winding” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an unusually patterned shell and by the silver painted “HR” in the crown (worn off in this example). The Hood Rubber Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in April 1942.  They produced approximately 206,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production in early 1944 when their contract was not renewed.

 
St. Clair

THE ST. CLAIR LINER

Manufactured in Marysville, Michigan this “low pressure” M-1 helmet liner is identified both by an unusually patterned shell and by the yellow painted “SC” in the crown.  The St. Clair M-1 helmet liner started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in April 1942.  They produced approximately 1,300,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production in early 1944 when their contract was not renewed.



Capac Manufacturing Company

CAPAC MANUFACTURING COMPANY

 

Manufactured in Capac, Michigan this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “cross” with the words “Capac” in the crown.  Capac Manufacturing Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942.  They produced approximately between 2,000,000 – 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production around August 17 1945 when the war ended.



Firestone

FIRESTONE TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY

Manufactured in Akron, Ohio this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “F” in the crown.  Firestone Tire and Rubber Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942.  They produced approximately 7,500,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production around August 17 1945 when the war ended.



Inland Manufacturing Division

INLAND MANUFACTURING DIVISION

Manufactured in Dayton, Ohio this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “INLAND” in the crown.  Inland Manufacturing Division started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942.   They produced approximately 1,900,000 M-1 helmet liners and converted about 75,000 liners to airborne configuration.  Inland Manufacturing discontinued M-1 helmet liner production in 1943 when their manufacturing services were deemed better used elsewhere.



International Molded Plastics, Inc

INTERNATIONAL MOLDED PLASTICS, INC (IMP)

Manufactured in Watertown, Massachusetts this “high pressure” manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed “little man” in a circle in the crown.  International Molded Plastics, Inc (IMP) started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942.  They produced approximately between 2,000,000 – 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued producton around August 17, 1945 when the war ended

 

Mine Safety Appliance (MSA)

 MINE SAFETY APPLIANCE (MSA)

Manufactured in Pittsburgh, Pennslyvannia this "high pressure" manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed "MSA" in the crown.  Mine Safety Appliance started M-1 helmet liner delivery to the US Army in September 1942. They produced approximately between 2,000,000 - 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued producton around August 17, 1945 when the war ended

 

Seaman Paper Company

 SEAMAN PAPER COMPANY

 Manufactured in Chicago, Illinois this "high pressure" maufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed "S" in the crown.  Seaman Paper Company started delivery to the US Army in September 1942.  They produced approximately between 2,000,000 - 4,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and discontinued production around August 17, 1945 when the war ended.

 

Westinghouse Electric Company

 WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY

 Manufactured in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvannia this "high pressure" manufactured M-1 helmet liner is identified by an embossed "W" in the crown (which is still Westinghouse's logo to this day).  Westinghouse was the largest M-1 helmet liner producer and had two production divisions; Micarta and Bryant Electric. The Micarta Division produced about 13,000,000 M-1 helmet liners and the Bryant Electric Division about 10,000,000. Westinghouse Electric Company started M-1 helmet liner delivery in May 1942.  Westinghouse did have a contract to producce airborne liners and converted an unknown amount to airborne configuration.  Westinghouse discontinued production around August 17, 1945 when the war ended.

 

Model 1951 / 1952 Liner

 MODEL 1951/1952 LINER

Manufactured by both Capac and Westinghouse (Micarta Division only) these M-1 helmet liners are identical to the WWII liner except that the internal HBT cloth is a dark green olive drab #7.  These liners are identified by two types of manufacturer stamps, on set of "W" and "CAPAC" are embossed into the crown and the other is an ink stamp of the word "MICARTA" that is attached to the interior of the liner.

Model 1958 Liner 

 

 MODEL 1958 LINER

The model 1958 M-1 helmet liner marked several changes.  The US M-1 helmet liner would no longer be made from compressed strips of duckcloth.  It was now made from a laminated nylon (I cannot tell the difference).  The liner would retain a suspension made from a different type of suspension cloth that was sturdier.  The most notable change was that the distinctive frontal eyelet was removed. 

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